I think that I have broached this several times in the past, but I have reason to believe that it runs counter to the prevailing assumptions and needs to be repeated.
What is God's basic attitude toward the world (kosmos in Greek) which He has created? In light of that, what is our basic response?
One stream of Scripture says that all things are in God's hand. He controls everything. If it happened, God did it. There is truth to this, because, after all, if God created all that is then He is ultimately the source of all that is. God sustains creation as well. He "thinks/speaks" it into being. Creation is dependent on God to exist, it is "contingent." Many texts of Scripture go so far as to say that God creates weal and creates woe. Obviously, many Christians believe that God controls every single event, some go so far as to negate human freedom.
On the other hand, the Scriptures also refer to human response to God (whether faithful or sinful). Human culpability would seem to imply God is not controlling everything. We are not merely "sock puppets" but have, to some extent, freedom. We make choices and we have regrets for things we have done or left undone.
For me, the primary image of Scripture is "the God Who saves." Salvation, or redemption, is God's rescue operation. It seems that God has made a creation from which He is withdrawn (a common feature of Biblical Revelation) and into which He intervenes. When bad things happen we turn to God for rescue and safety. At times, God's wrath (negative judgment) may be behind it all. This can be seen in places where we read that God has 'sent' a punishment (in the form of a foreign invader or a drought, for two examples) because the people are unfaithful. If God saves, and I would argue that is the primary thing He does, then all things are redeemable (potentially).
Human illness can be healed. This is a Divine intervention (whether miraculous or through more ordinary channels) where God 'saves' one from death. However, eventually, death wins. There are times when sick people die. Resurrection is the ultimate redemption. God takes life back from death's grasp. So, St. Paul, who lived in third world conditions and was very familiar with suffering and death, was able to say "Death where is your victory? Death where is your sting?" How could a man who suffered so much and saw to much able to think such a thing? Because of his experience of resurrection.
In the end, salvation makes sense of it all. Not now, certainly, when we see through a glass darkly and live only by faith. Someday, however, it shall be clearer.
This is why the birth of the Messiah matters, we are able to understand the means and mode of that salvation. God become human, God taking into Himself our human situation and condition, including suffering and death--this is how He does it. We await that deliverance in its final form, but here and now, today, we have a foretaste and a reason for joy and hope!